Meteor showers are one of the most fun and exciting activities you can see in the night sky. The thrill of watching a bright meteor streak across the heavens will last long after the meteor has faded. Meteor shower photography is a great way to capture these memories and create an awesome picture. You might be surprised you already have everything you need to photograph meteors showers.

Meteor Showers

Every year, there are dozens of recognized meteor showers. Some last for a few hours, while others stretch out over several days, if not weeks. Many don’t produce meteors at rates that you’d even notice a shower was occurring. But there are a few meteor showers that are truly worth trying to catch – the Quadrantids in early January, mid-August’s Perseids, and the Geminids in mid-December.

Meteor Shower Radiants

Meteor showers happen when Earth passes through a stream of dust-sized particles left behind from a comet or an asteroid. That causes each meteor shower to appear to radiate from a particular area of the sky. That part of the sky is called the shower “radiant.” These radiants are named for the constellation, sometimes a star, where the radiant is located.

Meteor Rate

Meteor shower rates, or the Zenith Hourly Rate (ZHR), are numbers that standardize the number of meteors that would be seen under optimum observing conditions. These estimate how many meteors would be seen under fully dark skies and with the shower radiant directly overhead, that is at the zenith. Since most showers will never be directly over your head and most observing sites are not fully dark, the ZHR numbers will be higher than what can be actually seen.

When and Where to Look for Meteors

Meteors can appear at any time. Brighter ones can even be seen during daytime hours. But meteor shower activity is notoriously hard to predict. Typically, it’s recommended to look for meteors between midnight and dawn. That is when the radiant is usually highest in the night sky. But some showers, like the Perseids and the Geminids, are often visible any time between dusk and dawn in northern latitudes.

Using Apps

If you’re not familiar with where some of these constellations are in the sky, you can use an app to locate them. I recommend trying a night sky planetarium app, like Stellarium or Star Walk, or the photography apps, PlanIt Pro or PhotoPills, to find the radiant. Look for the Augmented Reality feature in these apps to help you see where the radiant will be. For more info on these apps, check out our article Best Landscape Photography Apps for 2021.

Viewing in Light Pollution

If you can’t get to a dark sky location, don’t despair! Even in light-polluted locations, it’s not hard to catch Perseids as they are often bright. Bright meteors always look spectacular! It’s just that the dimmer ones will not stand out as much against any light pollution. So go ahead, set up a camera, and spend some time looking.

Peak Night Only?

While peak times for some meteor showers only last a few hours, that’s not the case with the Perseid and Geminid meteors. There’s an excellent chance to see numerous meteors on the nights that surround the peak time. There will be fewer meteors, but you still might want to plan on photographing the Perseids or Geminids on those nights before and after the peak. And if the weather is going to affect the peak night, plan to go out the night before or the night after.

A Perseid meteor passes through the sky over Mt. Hood and Trillium Lake. The Andromeda Galaxy can be seen in the upper right, adding interest along side the Northern Milky Way. 12 Aug 1918. © 2020 Kirk D. Keyes
A Perseid meteor passes through the sky over Mt. Hood and Trillium Lake during the pre-dawn hours.
The Andromeda Galaxy can be seen in the upper right, adding interest alongside the Northern Milky Way.
© 2020 Kirk D. Keyes

Where Should I Shoot?

Your first choice should be away from city lights and find a location with dark skies. If you’re not in either of those locations, find somewhere with the least light pollution, as you’ll see more meteors with darker skies. Open areas, whether on flat land, hills, or mountain tops, are all great locations.

Dark Sky Locations

If you need help finding a dark sky, check out DarkSkyFinder.com. You can zoom in to locations near you to find a suitable place for photographing meteors. Still at a loss on where to go? Check out these stargazing locations at EarthSky.org.

Top Meteor Showers of the Year

We’ll look at the three meteor showers that typically have the highest peak hourly rates – the Quadrantids, the Perseids, and the Geminids.

Quadrantid Meteors

While not as popular to watch, as it occurs mid-winter in the northern hemisphere, the Quadrantids can rival the better known Perseids and Geminids showers. It can produce hourly rates of over 100 meteors per hour. While the shower is recognized to occur from December 28th to January 12th, the peak usually happens around January 3rd.

The Quadrantids radiate from the constellation Boötes. Look for it near the handle of the Big Dipper, along the northern horizon in the early evening.

The Quadrantid Meteor Radiant is located near the end of the Big Dipper (Ursa Major's tail). Graphics Courtesy Stellarium Developers, Copyright 2022 Kirk D. Keyes
The Quadrantid Meteor Radiant is located near the end of the Big Dipper (Ursa Major’s tail). This view is from 40° North latitude, about midnight on January 3rd.
Graphics Courtesy Stellarium Developers, Copyright 2022 Kirk D. Keyes

The catch with the Quadrantids is the shower peak typically only lasts about 8 hours, compared to two days for August’s Perseids. Another factor working against the Quadrantids is the meteors are usually faint compared to other showers. To catch this shower, check out the Resources located at the end of this article to determine the best viewing time for your location.

Perseid Meteor Shower

From mid-July to near the end of August, it’s usually met with warm summer nights in the northern hemisphere. Perseids tend to be fast, bright, and often make long streaks across the sky. NASA has determined that the Perseid shower has more bright meteors than any other shower. With an impressive peak rate of 100 or more meteors per hour, the Perseids are the top contender for the best meteor shower of the year.

All these factors make the Perseids excellent for meteor photography.

The Perseid maximum tends to be just before mid-August, near August 12th or 13th. Unlike other showers that peak in a matter of hours, the Perseid shower peak is last for a few days and is often rewarding to watch.

In the evening, Perseids appear to stream from near the northeast horizon. As the night progresses, they appear to radiate more from overhead, streaming out from the constellation Perseus. You don’t know where that is? That’s OK. I don’t really either! But I do know Perseus is right next to the constellation Cassiopeia, which is easy to find.

The Perseid Meteor shower appears to radiate near the constellation Perseus. You can find the radiant by locating the five stars in Cassiopeia, in the Northeast shortly after nightfall in August. Image courtesy Stellarium.org Copyright Kirk D. Keyes 2021.
The Perseid Meteor shower appears to radiate near the constellation Perseus. You can find the radiant by locating the five stars in Cassiopeia, in the northeast, shortly after nightfall in August. Image courtesy Stellarium.org Copyright Kirk D. Keyes 2021.

To find Perseus, look to the northeast and find the big “W” shape near the Little Dipper. That’s the constellation Cassiopeia and it’s right above Perseus. You don’t need to aim your camera there; that’s simply where the meteors will appear to originate. They will streak across the sky away from Perseus.

Geminid Meteor Shower

The Geminid meteor shower is arguably the best meteor shower of the year. The Geminid shower is usually active from about December 4th to 17th and typically peaks on December 13th or 14th. The Geminids have a maximum hourly rate of 120, which tops all other meteor showers.

The Geminids appear different than August’s more popular Perseid shower. Perseid meteors are quick and often gone in a flash. Geminids enter Earth’s atmosphere about 40% slower than the Perseids, giving you a better chance to see them. Best of all, the Geminids often make long, intensely colored streaks as they cross the sky. Some even leave smoke trains high in the sky that persist for several minutes, twisting into unusual shapes as they dissipate.

The Geminid Meteor Radiant is located near the two brightest stars in the constellation Gemini, the twins, Castor (not labeled) and Pollux. Graphics Courtesy Stellarium Developers, Copyright 2020 Kirk D. Keyes
The Geminid Meteor Radiant is located near the two brightest stars in the constellation Gemini, the twins, Castor (not labeled) and Pollux. Graphics Courtesy Stellarium Developers, Copyright 2020 Kirk D. Keyes

You can find the Geminid radiant near the heads of the Gemini twins. (See the diagram above.) Two bright stars, Castor and Pollux, mark this spot in the night sky. You can follow an imaginary line from the two brightest stars in the constellation Orion to locate the Gemini radiant.

Meteor Shower Photography

Meteor Photography is actually not difficult. You may already have all the camera gear you need for photographing meteors. You’ll want a camera with manual settings, a sturdy tripod, and an intervalometer to trigger the camera. You’ll probably want extra batteries, as you’ll want to be able to shoot with the intervalometer all night long.

For lenses, use a fast lens with a wide field of view, like a 24mm lens on a full-frame camera, at f/1.4, if you have one. But depending on the type of photo you want, you may want a fish-eye lens or even a longer lens like a 35mm or even a 50mm. We’ll discuss the lens selection below when we look at “Where To Aim Your Camera.”

Try shooting some video if you have a camera that can shoot video under low-light levels, like the Sony a7S series. Set your camera to record at 4K, if available. With luck, you’ll capture the motion of the stars as they streak across the sky.

Where to Aim Your Camera

There are a couple of options to consider when aiming your camera for meteor shower photography. First, think about the type of photo you want to create. There are, in general, four types of meteor shower photos you can make.

To visualize the types of images, think about movies that show archers shooting arrows. There are typically four types of scenes in these movies. In the first, the camera is aimed at the archers as they launch the arrows into the air, radiating away from the archers and then raining down towards the camera position. The second shows a side view, with the arrows flying down on their targets – streaking diagonally to the camera’s view. A third shows the arrows flying downward toward their target, looking away from the archers. And the fourth type of image is the “all-sky” view, with the arrows flying against the open skies.

The Radiant – Meteor and Milky Way. Copyright Ralf Rohner

The “Radiant” View

For this first view, we want to catch the meteors streaming away from the radiant point. To achieve this, aim your camera so the radiant is either centered or slightly to one side of the camera’s field of view. Then set your camera intervalometer to take numerous photos through the night. Try to include some landscape to ground your image and give some perspective.

If you’re lucky, you may get several meteors in the same frame. Otherwise, you’ll need to stack several images where you did catch meteors together into a single image.

The “Diagonal Streak” View

The other type of image shows meteors forming parallel diagonal streaks across the frame. For this type of image, aim the camera 90 degrees away from the radiant. For example, using the Perseid meteors would mean pointing your camera towards the northwest or the southeast.

Think about using a medium-wide or normal lens for this type of photo. Again, you’ll probably want to combine several frames to create the final image.

The “Look Away” View

Aiming your camera towards the sky opposite the radiant will capture meteors as they appear to fall downwards towards the earth. They will be traveling more vertically in this view than in the “Diagonal Streak” view. Fewer meteors will appear in this area of the sky, but it creates an interesting view.

Pointing your camera away from the radiant captures meteors moving in a downward direction. Photo Credit: Copyright 2021 Aref Alragehi (@arefalragehi).
Pointing your camera away from the radiant captures meteors moving in a downward direction.
Photo Credit: Copyright 2021 Aref Alragehi (@arefalragehi). Composite image.

Aref Alragehi captured the image above using a Sony a6000 at ISO 6400. It’s a composite of four sets of images – one for the foreground, one each for the two meteors, and a stack of about 80 frames for the sky from a timelapse sequence. The camera did not move during the exposures. You can see more of Aref’s work at @arefalragehi on Instagram.

The “All-Sky” View

Finally, look for a spot with a wide-open view. You may not have a lens that can photograph the entire sky at once, but it can make your viewing experience more enjoyable!

To get an “All-Sky” photo, simply aim your camera overhead with a circular fish-eye or a diagonal or “full-frame fish-eye” lens on it. You will have the chance to catch more meteors by photographing a large sky area. However, these types of lenses let less light into the camera, so they will not record all the faint meteors that a faster lens would see.

You can still aim your camera upwards if you don’t have a really wide or fish-eye lens. Try including the radiant point in the corner of the camera’s view. You may catch the meteors streaking out from the radiant.

Interesting Foregrounds

Always look for a foreground subject that adds interest to your photo. As with other types of night photography, an interesting or exciting foreground makes your image stronger.

Camera Settings

Put your camera on the tripod and put on the lens. Don’t wait until it’s dark – have your camera set up and ready to go before dark, if you can.

Set your ISO to 1600, or even 3200, if your camera has low noise at higher ISO settings or you are using a lens with a slow f/stop. If you use higher ISO settings, you risk blowing out any color you may have in the brighter meteors.

Bring an extra battery, maybe two. Your camera will probably run for a couple of hours of non-stop shooting with one battery. But you may want to shoot longer, especially if you’re enjoying the celestial fireworks!

Shoot RAW

Set your camera to shoot RAW files. If you want to shoot JPG+RAW, that’s fine. Just make sure you have RAW selected. Put an empty memory card in your camera. Shooting images continuously, even with an interval of 30+ seconds, will quickly fill up smaller memory cards! Put in a 64 Gig or larger card, or bring a couple of 32 gig cards with you and expect to swap cards mid-shoot.

Intervalometer

Connect an intervalometer to your camera. You don’t even need to program it for shooting intervals or a time-lapse. Just set it for continuous shooting. A simple wired remote will work great for this. Some have a locking shutter release button. If you have one built into your camera, go ahead and use it.

Practice in the Light

If this is your first time shooting with an intervalometer, practice before heading out to shoot the Perseids. Some intervalometers are less intuitive to use than others. You’ll be happy you figured out how to use it at home rather than in the field as the meteors are streaking overhead.

Lenses and Focus

Ideally, you want a wide-angle to normal focal length lens with a maximum aperture of f/2.0 or faster. You can get by with f/2.8, but you will capture fewer meteors.

Use a 24mm or wider on full-frame (16mm for APS-C). Set your lens to its widest aperture; meteors move much faster than stars so you want to let as much light into your camera as possible. If all you have is an f/2.8 lens or slower lens, go ahead and use it wide open. You will still be able to capture the brighter meteors.

Fish-Eye Lenses

To get an all-sky photo, you’ll want to use a circular fish-eye or a diagonal or “full-frame fish-eye” lens. These lenses are typically f/3.5 or f/4. You’ll catch much fewer meteors than with a faster lens, but it could be worth it to capture the entire sky at once.

The Sigma 15mm f/2.8 EX DG Fisheye is available in Canon, Nikon, and several other mounts.

The Sigma 15mm f/2.8 EX DG Diagonal Fisheye is a great choice for full-frame and comes in Canon EF, Nikon F, Pentax K, Sony A, and Sigma mounts. The Samyang 12mm F/2.8 ED AS NCS Fisheye is another full-frame diagonal fisheye and is available in the same mounts as the Sigma 15, plus Micro Four Thirds, Fujifilm X, and Sony E mount. If you have an APS-C crop sensor camera, look into the Samyang 8mm F2.8 UMC Fisheye II which provides a 180-degree view.

Lens Warmers

If you are shooting anywhere except the desert – you’ll want a lens warmer. It’s a fabric band with a USB-powered heater inside. You wrap it around your lens and fasten the heater on with the Velcro strap. Ensure the heater doesn’t block access to any lens controls or get into your camera lens’s view.

Lens heaters work well, and you really will need one sooner or later. In a pinch, you can rubber band a chemical hand warmer to your lens. You might want to bring a small microfiber towel to wipe up any moisture that collects on the outside of your camera as the night progresses.

The Coo-Woo lens heater is available for less than $20US.

Focusing Your Lens

When setting up to shoot your meteor photos, AFTER setting up the lens warmer, first turn off your autofocus. You don’t want to have your camera accidentally refocus. Then manually focus on the stars. Don’t trust the infinity setting on your lens; actually, focus on a bright star. Take a couple of test shots to make sure you’ve nailed the focus!

Turn on your camera’s Live View function and set the ISO to 1600. Find a bright star in the sky, and aim your camera at it, so it’s near the center of your viewfinder. With your lens in manual focus, slowly rotate the focus ring back and forth. You should see the star become sharp and then blurry as you move past infinity focus. Make smaller and smaller motions until you center in on the sharpest focus. Depending on your lens, the star may have a slight red or green tinge to it – try to minimize it.

If your camera doesn’t have Live View, you can try the “trial and error” method. Manually try to get your best focus and take a shot. Review that image – zoom in and see how sharp the stars look. Then move the focus ring a little to the left or right and take another test photo. Compare it with the previous shot. If it looks sharper, try another shot, moving the focus ring a little more in the same direction as before. If it is worse, then go back to where you focused in the initial photo. Just keep trying to make small changes until you find the best focus you can.

Check Your Histogram

Use an app like PhotoPills to check the maximum exposure time for sharp stars for your lens and camera. For a 24mm on full-frame, you’ll probably need to use a time that’s 20 seconds or less. Zoom in on your test shots and check for star streaks.

Then take some test shots at 10, 15, 20, and 30 seconds. Look at the histogram for each shot. Use the exposure time that places the hump on the histogram about 1/3rd from the left side. Don’t use one that’s too far to the middle, as you’ll blow out the sky in your images.

If the hump of your histogram is not about 1/3rd from the left with the shutter speed you need, then you may want to bump up your ISO. You usually don’t need to go too high, as we don’t want to wash out any color that may be present. So resist the urge to use a high ISO. If your skies are relatively bright, and your histogram is near or above the middle of the histogram, go ahead and drop it a little.

Shutter Speed and Brightness

The thing to remember is shutter speed will not affect the brightness of a meteor on your image. ISO and f-stop do, but not shutter speed. Set your shutter speed to control the sharpness of the stars, and leave your f-stop open as much as possible so as to let as much light from the meteor into your camera. Then use the ISO to control the histogram. Simples.

Shoot Away!

Ooh, here’s my favorite part – set your intervalometer to shoot shot after shot after shot, and let it go! Now it’s just a matter of luck getting a bright meteor to pass right in front of your camera!!

If you are shooting with a DSLR, you will want to block your camera viewfinder to keep stray light from striking the sensor. Mirrorless users, don’t worry; you don’t need to do this.

In this 30 second exposure, a meteor streaks across the sky during the annual Perseid meteor shower Friday, Aug. 12, 2016 in Spruce Knob, West Virginia.
In this 30-second exposure, a meteor streaks across the sky during the annual Perseid meteor shower Friday, Aug. 12, 2016, in Spruce Knob, West Virginia.
Image courtesy: NASA on The Commons @ Flickr Commons

Enjoying the Night

Bring a lawn chair, a blanket, or sleeping bag, and something warm to drink. (And don’t forget the bug spray.) Then lay back and watch the show as your camera shoots away. Bring a friend to share in the excitement of seeing a really bright fireball!

Remember to bring warm clothes! Even mid-summer nights can get chilly. Bring extra layers so you can adjust your comfort level as the night progresses.

Start Looking After Twilight

You can start looking for meteors shortly after twilight ends. You have a better chance of seeing “earthgrazers” early in the night. Earthgrazers make long streaks as they skim across the thinner upper atmosphere. Perseids can also be colorful and leave long trails in the sky as they burn up.

Plan on Staying Out Late

As the night proceeds, the radiant will rise higher. This will help produce more meteors across the sky as dawn approaches.

Keep in mind that meteors can appear anywhere in the sky. You don’t need to concentrate on looking at the radiant. Look into the darkest area of the sky for your location. In early August 2020, I saw a meteor that was traveling perpendicular to the radiant. But it might have been a Perseid – it was bright and had a very long trail.

Fireballs!

Some meteor showers, like the Perseids, are known for producing “fireballs.” Fireballs are brighter than regular meteors and can glow longer than a regular meteor streak as well. Some fireballs explode high in the Earth’s atmosphere and are technically called “bolides.” You don’t need to worry about either fireballs or bolides, so enjoy them as they can be spectacular!

Post-Shower Peak Meteors

Most people get wrapped up in catching a meteor shower during the predicted peak. But data shows that the nights before or after the peak can be extremely rewarding, with hourly counts of about one-half of the peak zero hourly rates.

Post-Processing Meteor Photos

Later, after you’ve caught up on your sleep, look through your photos. Hopefully, you caught some good ones. If it’s a good shower and you’ve captured numerous meteors, you can blend them into one image. It makes a cool photo, and you will probably see that the meteors actually radiate from one location in the sky. 

Sift through your photos and identify the shots containing a meteor. Tag them for use in your composite. Once you have all your images with meteors tagged, load them into a stack in Photoshop. Put each image in as a separate layer. Extract each meteor from the image by masking out the rest of the image. Blend the masked layers into a final composite. Include one image without masking for use as your background.

For a complete and thorough discussion on doing this, check out the following video, BlogChat: How to Process Meteor Shower Radiant Composite Images. Matt Hill and Chris Nicholson, from National Parks at Night, go through all the steps you’ll need to create your meteor shower composite photo.

My Meteor Shower Gear

My Milky Way shooting gear is similar to what I use for meteor photography. I plan to use my Sony mirrorless cameras this year, both full-frame and APS-C.

Cameras

  • Sony a7 III – 24 MPixel Full-Frame Camera. I typically use it to shoot various compositions through the night as I let both my a6300 shoot time-lapses. For meter photography, I’m going to set the a7III up and let it shoot away to increase my chance of catching a meteor.
  • Sony a6300 – 24 MPixel APS-C camera. I have two, and they are my goto cameras for shooting time-lapses. The a6300 has been superseded by the a6400.
Sony a7 III – an excellent low-light camera for Milky Way Photography.

Lenses

  • Sony E-mount FE 24mm F1.4 GM – This is a fast and wide lens that performs weel wide open, ideal for shooting meteors. It’s going on my a7III.
  • Rokinon 24mm F1.4 ED AS IF UMC – This will go on the one of my a6300. It’s equivalent to 35mm on full-frame when on my APS-C cameras. I’ll point directly at the radiant.
  • Sigma 14mm f/1.8 DG HSM ART – This lens is nice and wide, but it doesn’t let in as much light as my 24mm lenses. It’s going on the other a6300.
  • Rokinon 16mm f/2.0 16M-E – this will go on the a6000. It’s equivalent to 24mm on full-frame when on my APS-C cameras.

Tripod

Benro 3-Way Geared Head.
Try it once, and you’ll never go back.

Additional Gear

Neewer Sandbag – works great for holding items off the ground, like external batteries.

Happy Meteor Photographing

Let us know how your shoot went in the comments below. Good luck!!

Resources For More Info:

To learn more about meteors, the American Meteor Society is an excellent resource.
Check out NASA’s webpage on the Perseid Meteor shower.
For a more detailed 2021 meteor analysis, try the International Meteor Organization.
Your one-stop shop for the latest in meteor activity: MeteorNews.Net.

Cover Photo Credits: Siarakduz, Perseid, CC BY-SA 4.0

An earlier version of this article was originally published on 2020 Aug 8th. It was updated on 2021 July 29 (776) and 2022 May 28 (2585).